Risk Factor Pregnancy: Risk cannot be ruled out. Lactation: Contraindicated or not recommended. Contraindications: Acute intoxication with alcohol, hypnotics, analgesics or other CNS-acting drugs. Uncontrolled epilepsy, severe renal or hepatic impairment, opioid withdrawal treatment. Precautions: Mild to moderate renal or hepatic impairment. History of drug abuse. Risk of tolerance and dependence. Head injury, raised intracranial pressure, shock, unexplained loss of consciousness. History of convulsions. CYP2D6 poor metabolisers. Withdraw gradually. Elderly.
Indications Severe acute and chronic pain, diagnostic measures and surgical pain. Dosage Adults: ORAL: 50-100 mg three to four times daily. Max 400 mg daily. INJECTION: 50-100 mg by IM or SC or IV inj or IV infusion 3-4 times daily. Max 400 mg daily. Children: Under 12 yr, not recommended. Moderate to severe pain: ORAL: 12-18 yr, 50-100 mg not more often than every 4 hr; total of more than 400 mg daily not usually required. INJECTION: 12-18 yr, 50-100mg every 4-6 hr by IV injection over 2-3 minutes or